|Director: Stanley Kubrick|
|Screenplay: Stanley Kubrick (based on the novel by William Makepeace Thackeray) |
|Stars: Ryan O’Neal (Barry Lyndon), Marisa Berenson (Lady Honoria Lyndon), Patrick Magee (The Chevalier du Balibari), Hardy Krüger (Capt. Potzdorf), Steven Berkoff (Lord Ludd), Gay Hamilton (Nora Brady), Marie Kean (Barry’s Mother), Diana Körner (Lischen), Murray Melvin (Rev. Samuel Runt), Frank Middlemass (Sir Charles Lyndon), André Morell (Lord Gustavus Adolphus Wendover), Arthur O’Sullivan (Capt. Feeny), Godfrey Quigley (Capt. Grogan), Leonard Rossiter (Capt. John Quin), Philip Stone (Graham), Leon Vitali (Lord Bullingdon)|
|MPAA Rating: PG|
|Year of Release: 1975|
|Country: U.S. / U.K. / Ireland|
Stanley Kubrick’s Barry Lyndon opens with what is arguably the most beautiful shot in all of his films and, quite possibly, one of the most beautiful shots in all of cinema. A long shot depicting a duel, it is framed by massive trees and cut through with a winding, ancient-looking rock wall and wooden fence that extend into the depth of the frame, moving past a quintet of figures in the distance. They stand in a yellowish field, with purple mountains rising above them to a dramatically overcast sky. The interplay of light and dark, various contrasting colors, and extreme variation in the size of objects within the frame make it an endlessly fascinating composition in and of itself, but it also crucially establishes everything we need to know about how Barry Lyndon will unfold, which is in a most unconventional manner.
The action in this opening shot, which is a single long take, is a duel in which the man who is killed is the father of the film’s protagonist. Viewing this opening moment of violence from an extreme distance establishes the film’s narrative tone, which is one of purposeful distance; rather than drawing us into the film’s world via grotesque close-ups as Kubrick did in several of his previous films, notably Dr. Strangelove (1964) and A Clockwork Orange (1971), Barry Lyndon is a film composed mostly of medium and long shots, which emphasizes the environment itself as much as it does the characters. There is a tendency to think that such an emphasis comes “at the expense” of the characters, but the underlying brilliance of Kubrick’s film is the manner in which he interweaves the two with such delicacy and affect and binds them together with a droll, omniscient narrator who supplies crucial information, frequently before events take place. Allowing us to know ahead of time what will eventually happen strips the story of the conventional pleasures of surprise, but that is a loss hardly felt as it is replaced with a constant sense of slow-burn suspense and intrigue as to how exactly the story will unfold. We know that characters’ fortunes will rise and fall, certain characters will die, and relationships will sour, and what is left to discover is the means by which these events take place, which is a unique pleasure all its own (although, to be fair, the narrative does allow for a few surprises, such as the revelation that a character we thought was killed in fact faked his own demise).
Set in the second half of the 1700s, Barry Lyndon is based on William Makepeace Thackeray’s 1844 novel The Luck of Barry Lyndon, which was originally serialized in Fraser’s Magazine and was described by its author as “a novel without a hero.” The “non-hero” of the story is the eponymous Barry Lyndon (Ryan O’Neal), who is first introduced as a young man on the fringes of a prominent Irish family. His youthful romanticism and naïveté are forever destroyed when his cousin Nora (Gay Hamilton), with whom he is deeply in love, ditches him for a profitable marriage with the officious English Captain John Quinn (Leonard Rossiter). These events ultimately propel Barry out of his native Ireland, first into a stint of professional soldiering in the British army and then in the Prussian army during the Seven Years’ War. He is later recruited to spy on the Chevalier du Balibari (Patrick Magee), an Irish card shark who takes Barry under his wing and teaches him the ruthless tools of his mendacious trade. It is during this period of his life that Barry meets Lady Lyndon (Marisa Berenson), the beautiful wife of a dying lord whose place Barry means to take. And take it he does, which is how he achieves the title of Barry Lyndon, thus placing him near the top of the British social hierarchy. His incursion into the Lyndon family does not sit well with his stepson, Lord Bullingdon (Leon Vitali), with whom Barry is in constant conflict, first as a defiant child and later as a resentful young man who plots to undermine Barry’s position.
The arc of the story is similar to the droog Alex’s course in A Clockwork Orange; it is a bitterly ironic accounting of a character’s rise and fall, although our relation to the protagonist is absolutely reversed. While Alex begins as a villain and gradually becomes a victim, Barry charts the opposite path, beginning as a victim of class hierarchies and slowly becoming a villain as he vanquishes them by ascending to their highest rungs. A further difference, however, is that Barry ultimately returns to victimhood, as the second half of the film recounts his rapid descent and expulsion from the world he worked so hard to infiltrate, partially due to his own vanity and desire for power and partially due to his decision late in the film not to kill someone when he has the chance. Thus, Kubrick doubles down on the irony of a poor Irish rake who manages to con his way to the top of the English aristrocracy only to tumble back down, the final stretch of which is caused by his one fully decent, humane decision. In the world of Barry Lyndon, kindness, decency, and forgiveness have little place. The world of the aristocracy, while seemingly refined and genteel, is its own pit of vipers, and if we feel anything for Barry, it is sorrow that his life’s pursuit was becoming one of them.
Because Barry Lyndon is a story about social class and hierarchies, the use of architecture and space and environment is crucial to the characters’ development. Many critics at the time of the film’s initial release mistook Kubrick’s visual emphasis on painterly compositions and slow reverse zooms that turn close-ups of a detail (loading a gun, signing a document, fishing in a lake) into fastidious recreations of Renaissance and Romantic era paintings, accusing him of diverting the film’s attention and energy to its formal components at the expense of its characters and story. In fact, the environments themselves are constituent parts of the story, as they provide an expressive backdrop for Barry’s rise and fall; the expansive battlefields, gilded ballrooms, stately offices, and meticulously manicured gardens are characters in and of themselves, often conveying what is actually at stake in a way that is far more rich and direct than dialogue could manage. Kubrick had long been fascinated by this period in European history (he spent much of the late 1960s and early ’70s trying to mount a massive studio film about Napoleon that was ultimately doomed by budgetary concerns and worrisome studio executives). He conducted extensive research in order to recreate the era as closely as possible, which meant shooting in actual locations, using clothing that dated back to the late 1700s, and relying heavily on art from the period to learn about what life looked like.
Working with cinematographer John Alcott, who had served as a lighting cameraman and assistant on 2001: A Space Odyssey (1968) and A Clockwork Orange, Kubrick achieved a visual palette that is intensely realistic while also resembling an oil painting in motion. Virtually every frame of the more-than-three-hour film is an expressive study in lighting and composition, and Kubrick insisted on the appearance of natural lighting, even at night when the characters’ world was illuminated only by flickering candles and candelabras. Capturing images in such low light levels required the use of special Zeiss lenses that had been specifically manufactured for NASA to use on its satellites. They fulfilled Kubrick’s need for lenses that would be 100% faster than any existing motion picture lenses, which meant that he and Alcott were able create imagery that previously would have been literally impossible to capture. Barry Lyndon brought the movies that much closer to human eyesight.
Kubrick’s decision to make an ornate historical film following three forays into futuristic science fiction seemed odd and unexpected at the time, but for Kubrick it made perfect sense. In a 1976 interview with Michel Ciment, Kubrick noted, “It … offered the opportunity to do one of the things that movies can do better than any other art form, and that is to present historical subject matter. Description is not one of the things that novels do best but it is something that movies do effortlessly, at least with respect to the effort required of the audience. This is equally true for science-fiction and fantasy, which offer visual challenges and possibilities you don’t find in contemporary stories.” Thus, in Kubrick’s mind, the landscapes, modes of dress, language, and customs of pre-Napoleonic Europe are just as alien—and fascinating—as a dystopian future London or an orbiting space station. And this is precisely why Barry Lyndon, despite the largely negative critical reviews that greeted its arrival in theaters, has only grown in esteem over the years, with many now proclaiming it Kubrick’s best work. Far from the cold, unengaging exercise in historical style it is often accused of being, Barry Lyndon is a deeply felt, sometimes brutally ironic, and always visually gorgeous summation of the wide breadth of human experience—from the profound to the profane, the absurd to the abject, the hopeful to the miserable.
|Barry Lyndon Criterion Collection Blu-ray|
|Audio||English DTS-HD Master Audio 5.1 surroundEnglish Linear PCM 1.0 monaural|
|Supplements||“Making Barry Lyndon documentaryVideo interview with focus puller Douglas Milsome and gaffer Lou Bogue, as well as excerpts from a 1980 interview with cinematographer John AlcottVideo interview with historian Christopher Frayling on Academy Award–winning production designer Ken AdamVideo interview with editor Tony LawsonFrench television interview from 1976 with costume designer Ulla-Britt SöderlundVideo interview with critic Michel CimentVideo interview with actor Leon Vitali about the 5.1 surround soundtrackVideo piece analyzing the fine-art-inspired aesthetics of the film with curator Adam EakerTrailersEssay by critic Geoffrey O’Brien and two pieces about the look of the film from the March 1976 issue of American Cinematographer|
|Distributor||The Criterion Collection|
|Release Date||October 17, 2017|
|Although Barry Lyndon has been available on Blu-ray for a number of years now, Criterion’s new digital restoration will certainly become the new standard. Scanned in 4K from the original 35mm camera negative and digitally restored, the image on Criterion’s disc is simply outstanding—breathtaking, in fact. Presented in its proper, Kubrick-dictated 1.66:1 theatrical aspect ratio (unlike the earlier Warner Bros. disc, which was reframed at 1.78:1), Barry Lyndon has never looked better, and it is clear that a great deal of time and care was spent ensuring that it looks as good as possible (the previous high-def transfer, which was made back in 2000 under the supervision of Leon Vitali, Kubrick’s long-time assistant, served as a reference guide for color correction). The image is rich and deeply textured, with a beautiful grain structure that enhances the film’s painterly qualities (after all, what is a Renaissance oil painting without the texture of paint and canvas?). Colors are impressively saturated, black levels look spot-on, and detail is excellent throughout. Criterion also gives us the option of either the original monaural mix, presented in lossless Linear PCM, or the 5.1-channel surround mix that was made under Vitali’s supervision back in 2000. This may make me a bit of a heretic, but I prefer the 5.1 remix, primarily because it opens up the soundscape in ways that are both subtle and quite emphatic, which for me better merges sound and image into a complete environment. The monaural, while true to the original theatrical presentation, is quiet flat and feels compressed by comparison.|
One of the reasons that Criterion’s transfer of Barry Lyndon looks and sounds so good is because they have used the entirety of a BD-50 disc to house it, which means that no data is taken up with anything other than sound and image. All of the newly created supplements, which are quite impressive in their breadth, are located on a second Blu-ray disc. Although there is not an audio commentary on the film itself, critic Michel Ciment, author of Kubrick: The Definitive Edition, offers a fantastic analysis of the film’s achievements in an 18-minute featurette titled “Passion and Reason.” A good follow-up is “The Making Barry Lyndon,” a new 38-minute retrospective documentary about the film’s production that includes new interviews with Jan Harlan, Brian Cook, Michael Stevenson, Dominic Savage, and Leon Vitali, as well as audio excerpts from a 1976 interview with Kubrick. “Achieving Perfection” is a deeply informative 25-minute video interview with focus puller Douglas Milsome and gaffer Lou Bogue (also included are audio excerpts from a 1980 interview with the late cinematographer John Alcott). They discuss the film’s groundbreaking visuals and how they were achieved via naturalistic lighting and special lenses on refitted cameras, which required a substantial amount of planning and work to maintain focus. “Drama in Detail” is a 14-minute interview with historian Sir Christopher Frayling about the Oscar-winning production design by Ken Adam (Frayling wrote a book on Adam titled Ken Adam: the Art of Production Design). “Timing and Tension” is a new 14-minute interview with editor Tony Lawson, who talks about his work with Kubrick on editing the film (most interesting is his discussion of how much work went into going through the numerous takes and assembling them into a coherent sense of continuous action). “On the Costumes” is a 5-minute excerpt from a French television interview from September 9, 1976, with costume designer Ulla-Britt Söderlund. “Balancing Every Sound” is a 10-minute featurette in which Vitali discusses the 2000 remix of the original monaural soundtrack into 5.1-channel surround, which is nicely illustrated with numerous back-to-back examples. Finally, we have “A Cinematic Canvas,” an excellent 25-minute featurette in which Metropolitan Museum of Art curator Adam Eaker talks about the various artworks that inspired Kubrick’s visuals in the film. There are also two trailers and a thick booklet with an essay by critic Geoffrey O’Brien and two pieces about the look of the film that were originally published in the March 1976 issue of American Cinematographer.
Copyright © 2017 James Kendrick
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All images copyright © Warner Bros. / The Criterion Collection