|Director: Rainer Wener Fassbinder||Screenplay: Rainer Werner Fassbinder|
|Stars: Brigitte Mira (Emmi Kurowski), El Hedi ben Salem (Ali), Barbara Valentin (Barbara), Irm Hermann (Krista), Elma Karlowa (Mrs. Kargus), Anita Bucher (Mrs. Ellis), Gusti Kreissl (Paula), Doris Mathes (Mrs. Angermeyer), Margit Symo (Hedwig) |
|MPAA Rating: NR|
|Year of Release: 1974|
Rainer Werner Fassbinder’s Ali: Fear Eats the Soul (Angst essen Seele auf) is a simple and powerful film of great and quiet beauty. Although Fassbinder was often characterized as a deep pessimist, this film is much different from his earlier work, as it is centered around the importance of personal responsibility in a hostile world and ends on a hopeful note that is neither pandering nor unrealistic. It says, in effect, that the world may not change, but there is power in individual actions. The film is filled with moments of severe human ugliness, but also of moments of such pure loving and tenderness that it makes anything seem possible.
Borrowing the basic narrative structure of Douglas Sirk’s 1955 melodrama All That Heaven Allows, Ali: Fear Eats the Soul tells the story of two lonely people who fall in love and suffer dire social consequences because the world in which they live does not accept their being together. The man is Ali (El Hedi ben Salem), a Moroccan in his 30s who has lived in Germany for two years and speaks the language well, but not nearly well enough to be accepted in German society as anything other than a “foreigner.” The woman is Emmi (Brigitte Mira), a widow in her 60s who has three grown children and works as a cleaning lady. They meet in a bar populated entirely by foreign workers when Emmi stops in to get out of the rain. As a joke, someone suggests that Ali ask her to dance, which he does. He ends up walking her home, and then coming up for a drink, and then staying the night in a series of scenes that perfectly convey how two unlikely people could so easily and quickly come together.
Ali and Emmi fall in love with each other, despite the fact that there are more than two decades of age difference between them and he is black and she is white. When they decide to get married, Emmi feels the full force of others’ intolerance, as her children (the most noxious of whom is played by Fassbinder himself) refuse to come see her, her neighbors turn their noses up at her and call the police when Ali’s friends come over, her coworkers stop speaking to her, and the local grocer refuses to serve them. Fassbinder consistently isolates Ali and Emmi within the frame or traps them between stark vertical lines to reinforce their separation from the others around them. There are two crucial scenes in which they go to restaurants and appear to be the only people there, while the waiters stand and stare.
Fassbinder is powerful in his conviction about the nature of intolerance and prejudice without ever making the film feel didactic or condescending. Although working in the basic form of the melodrama, he keeps the emotions dialed down and allows silences and stares to speak volumes. Fassbinder was himself an outsider as both a gay man and a provocative artist at the cusp of the New German Cinema, so he was keenly aware of what his characters were going through. In simple compositions and spare dialogue, he conveys the pain of isolation juxtaposed with the comforting beauty of pure love. The irony is that the two coexist in Emmi and Ali—their relationship is simultaneously the source of great happiness and sorrow.
This is particularly true for Emmi, who had not known the pains of being an object of prejudice. Once a member of the Nazi party, she is nevertheless an open and caring individual who is never bothered by Ali’s ethnicity. She sees past his skin and accent to his heart, something most everyone else around her cannot do. Ali, on the other hand, seems resigned to his lot in life, at one point articulating his social position as, “German master. Arab dog.” Fassbinder had been openly critical of “establishment” figures in many of his films, but in Fear Eats the Soul, he locates tolerance in exactly those characters, namely two policemen who are reluctantly called in to quiet down a party at Emmi’s apartment and the landlord’s son, who wants Ali to move out until he discovers that he and Emmi plan to be married. When two of Emmi’s nosy neighbors vocalize their disgust at Emmi and Ali’s union, he states simply that he sees nothing wrong with it and walks away.
While both Emmi and Ali are admirable characters, Fassbinder does not condescend to some easy dichotomy of good and bad, heroes and villains. Both Emmi and Ali have their weaknesses, which at one point threaten to destroy their relationship. Emmi, despite being tolerant, slips into a casual form of racism once her friends and family begin to accept Ali when it benefits them (her neighbors like that he can help them move furniture, the grocer needs their business, etc.). In a particularly wrenching scene, Emmi’s coworkers come over and she shows Ali off like a circus animal, allowing them to “ooh” and “ahh” over his muscles and how clean he is (“I didn’t think they bathed,” one of them remarks). Ali has his own weaknesses, which lead him to the bed of another woman, not so much for sex, but for comfort (and the fact that she can make his favorite food, couscous, which Emmi refuses to make because it’s not German).
Shot in only 16 days and starring mostly unknown actors, Ali: Fear Eats the Soul is a great and moving film. Fassbinder so intricately weaves together the emotional and the social that the two are indistinguishable, which is why is he can make such firm social statements without feeling preachy. At the end of the film, which brings it to its most melodramatic moment, Fassbinder finds a perfect balance in suggesting that Emmi and Ali will persevere in their relationship, but it will never be easy. In this way, he suggests that there is hope, but not without suffering. As the epigraph that opens the film puts it, “Happiness isn’t always fun.”
|Ali: Fear Eats the SoulCriterion Collection Blu-ray|
|Audio||German Linear PCM 1.0 monaural|
|Supplements||Introduction from 2003 by filmmaker Todd HaynesInterviews from 2003 with actor Brigitte Mira and editor Thea EymèszShahbaz Noshir’s 2002 short Angst isst Seele aufSigns of Vigorous Life: New German Cinema, a 1976 BBC programScene from Fassbinder’s 1970 film The American SoldierTrailerEssay by critic Chris Fujiwara|
|Distributor||The Criterion Collection |
|Release Date||September 30, 2014|
|Criterion’s Blu-ray of Ali: Fear Eats the Soul features a beautiful new 4K transfer that was made from the original camera negative and digitally restored at ARRI Film & TV in Munich under the supervision of cinematographer Jürgen Jürges. The image is clean and clear throughout, with excellent detail and strong saturated colors that underscore the film’s most emotional moments (of particular vibrancy are the red tablecloths in the bar and the yellow tables at the outdoor café). There are no traces of dirt or scratches anywhere, and while some shots seem just a tad softer and grainier than others, it is due to the original film stock, not the transfer. The monaural soundtrack, which was mastered at 24-bit from the 17.5mm meganetic tracks and then digitally restored, sounds quite clean. It has evidence of the limitations of the source material, but it couldn’t sound any better.|
|All of the supplements included on the Blu-ray have been ported over from Criterion’s 2003 DVD. We start with a 23-minute interview with writer/director Todd Haynes (Far From Heaven), who speaks cogently about Fassbinder’s career and his influences, Douglas Sirk’s career and his ideological leanings, and their influence on his own work. As someone who studied semiotics in college and is clearly very well-read and intelligent, Haynes has the tendency to speak a lot of jargon, so be prepared for plenty of sentences that contain phrases like “regime of the look” and “construct of society.” There are also several circa-2003 video interviews.Well into her 90s but still acting, Brigitte Mira sat down for a 25-minute interview, speaking openly and animatedly about her first encounter with Fassbinder, the script for Ali: Fear Eats the Soul, shooting the film, working with El Hedi bin Salem, and the film’s premiere at Cannes in 1974, among other things. Although now retired, editor Thea Eymèsz granted Criterion a 23-minute interview in which she discusses her long career working with Fassbinder (she edited 16 of his films), her style of editing, working on Ali: Fear Eats the Soul, and her work on a new short film based on it. Also included is Angst isst Seele auf, a 12-minute short film by actor/director Shahbaz Noshir that premiered at the Venice Film Festival in 2002. I found it a bit pretentious, but it’s worth sitting through just to see Brigitte Mira, now in her 90s, self-reflexively playing an actress playing the role of Emmi in a stage production of Fear Eats the Soul. The entire film is shot from the point-of-view of a foreign actor in Germany who is attacked by neo-Nazis and then goes on to play the role of Ali on-stage. Signs of Vigorous Life: The New German Cinema is a robust half-hour documentary that was produced by the BBC for its series Omnibus in 1976. It discusses the history of the German cinema, from its influential heyday in the 1920s, to its virtual destruction by Nazi propaganda in the ’30s and ’40s, to its dormancy in the ’50s and ’60s, and finally to its resurgence as the New German Cinema in the late ’60s and throughout the 1970s. The documentary focuses primarily on five then-up-and-coming young directors, all of whom were in their 30s: Volker Schlöndorff, Wim Wenders, Werner Herzog, Hans-Jürgen Syberberg, and Rainer Werner Fassbinder. Also on the disc is a brief clip from The American Soldier, a 1970 film by Fassbinder, in which a chambermaid relates a story that is strikingly similar to the one told in Ali: Fear Eats the Soul, except that it ends much differently, and the original theatrical trailer. The only difference in terms of supplements from the DVD to the Blu-ray is the loss of Michael Töteberg’s introduction to a collection of Fassbinder’s screenplays, which was included in the DVD’s 16-page insert book. The Blu-ray has only a folded inserted with the same essay by Chris Fujiwara.|
Copyright © 2014 James Kendrick